Chaplain William Harrison Williams
1st Tennessee Regiment
By H. Rondel Rumburg
The Confederate chaplains were self-giving men who sought to glorify God and present the saving gospel to men who were in imminent danger of facing eternity. A Christ-centered chaplain is the subject of this article.
The reader is given the following reminder by a Southern minister of the gospel who preached to Confederate soldiers: “I have never understood the compatibleness of Christianity with war as I see it in the present struggle for Southern independence” but this understanding changed and he went on to explain, “I can now comprehend what is meant by the New Testament phrase, ‘a devout soldier,’ for I have seen the men for whom I have preached, with whom I have prayed, and whom I have seen presiding at Baptist associations, fully panoplied for the war” [Rev. Joseph Walker]. This was the general understanding and experience of men like Chaplain W. H. Williams.
Birth and Parentage
Richmond, the capitol of the Old Dominion, became the birthplace of William Harrison Williams on July 18th, 1840. He was the first child of Jesse and Maria Anderson Williams. Maria Williams was a lady of frail health, but because of the grace of God she was of a cheerful and happy disposition which was a blessing to her family. Mother Williams was a committed Christian whose way of dealing with life’s problems was to carry all important questions to the throne of God in prayer. This compassionate lady had been a teacher. She was a lady of deeply held convictions. This lady loved her family.
Not only was his mother’s health poor but William H. Williams as an infant was described as “weak and frail.” However, in time he seemed to outgrow this condition and began to flourish. As a child he was affectionate and serious.
God brought William a providential test when he was only a boy of fourteen. At this young age the Lord took his dear mother who had already made a significant impact on William’s life. The very last time he made a public utterance at the end of his life, actually on the very day of his death he spoke with deepest love and respect of his mother. Her life of prayer and habitual use of her Bible were reflected in his final declaration. Truly William did not forget his mother who was such a source of spiritual blessing in his life.
Early in childhood William became concerned about the claims of Christ upon his heart and life. Around the time of his mother’s death these spiritual concerns came to full expression. The young man saw himself as a sinner undone and in need of forgiveness of sin through the blood of Jesus Christ. He came to the Lord professing his personal faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. The Lord Christ saved young William from his sins. His pastor Dr. Basil Manly, Jr. baptized him into the First Baptist Church of Richmond upon his profession of faith in March of 1854; this was a month before his pastor resigned as pastor to become president of Richmond Female Institute.
Call to the Ministry & Education
Brother Williams soon after his conversion to Christ became an active member of the First Baptist Church and participated in some of this local church’s ministries. Early in his Christian life he sensed God’s call to the ministry. By 1857 he was leading gospel meeting in Richmond and country churches in the surrounding areas near town. In June of 1858 as a church member and a ministerial student at Richmond College he was hired for three months that summer to do mission work in and around Richmond. His work was so well done that he was hired for the winter months. William H. Williams conducted services in small congregations that he said gave “good attention.” Being young and often stressed regarding such an overwhelming task he privately lamented his sometimes rebellious heart and gloomy outlook. God in His providence was preparing this servant who was yet a fledgling for future service as a chaplain and pastor.
His calling was recognized by the First Baptist Church of Richmond and he was licensed there on April 26th, 1858 to preach the gospel of his Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. At this time William was still pursuing his college education at Richmond College a Baptist institution of higher learning.
The summer of 1859 was eventful for William H. Williams. This was the summer the Potomac Association employed him as a colporteur. The summer was spent with a Christian family (S. S. Gore) near Winchester and Winchester became the hub of his ministry. July 18th, 1859 was his nineteenth birthday and it was on this day he began this work for the Lord. What was his job description? This ministry consisted of selling books, dealing with people regarding spiritual matters, holding prayer meetings, preaching the Word of God and assisting in Sunday Schools in the association. Thus his work was expansive.
In God’s providence he was broken in by a difficult encounter. The first visit he made was an encounter with an infidel who matter-of-factly asserted that two-thirds of all preachers were going to hell. The wind had been knocked out of the young colporteur’s sails. One described the scene:
This rebuff led the young colporteur to return to the home of Mrs. S. S. Gore, his headquarters, with the conviction that he needed more grace for his work. This good woman found him on his knees wrestling in prayer for the needed strength. When he started out again he came to a home where the parents were away at work; here he taught the children about God and Jesus in so excellent a way that the parents were led to conversion and church membership. A conversation with a man in the field at his work made such an impression for good that ten years afterward when the man presented himself for church membership he said that the words of the young colporteur had led him to Christ.
One of the reasons he was hired by the association was for missionary purposes. Baptists were few in the area so what he was to do was assist the cause of Christ by exposing people to the gospel through literature, cordial conversation around the Saviour and the general work of the gospel. Generally William found the people kindly disposed toward him but either not able or not interested in the books he was supposed to be selling.
William’s habit at this time was to record certain events of his life in a diary and within its pages his thoughts and feelings found a repository. He confided therein that he found it difficult to meet new people and was very reticent regarding first encounters. Perhaps this was just a youthful fear. Sharing their hospitality and encouraging them to purchase books was somewhat painful for the young ministerial student. However, when the newness of his task wore off he began to enjoy his ministry that summer. Some of his own personal concerns were: for the Lord to answer his prayers, that he would be pure of heart, chaste, courageous and humble. His battle with pride drove him to especially seek humility. There were many encounters that summer to test his sanctification.
September 25th was the day of his return to Richmond through Washington D.C. A boon companion he had during much of this summer was W. S. Ryland. Ryland was a young man of his age and also a member of First Baptist Church who had been preaching at Winchester that summer. On August 11th, 1859 William was present for the ordination of W. S. Ryland at a session of the Potomac Baptist Association. Rev. William F. Broaddus preached the ordination sermon from Paul’s words to Timothy—“This is a true saying, If a man desire the office of a bishop, he desireth a good work” (1 Tim. 3:1). Dr. Robert Ryland gave the charge to the candidate and W. D. Thomas gave the right hand of fellowship.
After the summer William returned to college and his studies as he prepared for seminary. William Harrison Williams graduated with a Bachelor of Arts Degree in 1861 and was subsequently awarded the honorary degree of M.A. The political events had been moving rapidly. Now his beloved South needed to defend herself from an invading enemy claiming to be keeping the Union safe while they made war on the South.
Almost with graduation came the sounds of conflict. There echoed the sound of guns defending Charleston, and the newly elected Abe Lincoln was calling Virginia and the other states to supply soldiers to put down sister states that had already seceded. The straw that broke the camel’s back, so to speak, was the audacity of trying to force Southern States to submit to the tyranny of the Federal government demanding to use of Southern men to destroy their fellow citizens. They could not join in the genocide of their own people!
Young ministers along with other Southern young men came to the aid of their fellows in order to defend the Constitution that was being raped by the radical Republicans now in Washington; these men were seeking to force war on them. Even young preachers in Virginia were joining the ranks to ward off those who would invade their homeland. Many young men training for the ministry became soldiers and some became chaplains.
Human necessity caused young William H. Williams to take up the sword of the Spirit and follow the soldiers as a chaplain. Williams left Richmond for Harper’s Ferry on June 11th, 1861 and he arrived the next day. Upon arrival he was encouraged and received great joy when he found many of his friends, such as: J. William Jones who would become chaplain of the 13th Virginia; W. S. Ryland who also became chaplain in the 13th Virginia; and there were other friends he ran into at Harper’s Ferry. Harper’s Ferry was a training center for raw Southern soldiers. The question that arose was can the place be defended or should the arsenal be moved?
William H. Williams became chaplain of the First Tennessee Regiment. After their training and the completion of the tasks given them the First Tennessee left Harper’s Ferry on June 15th. Chaplain Williams devoted himself with great zeal to the work of a chaplain. He was preaching, visiting the sick, holding prayer meetings and when he was afforded some free time he was studying to show himself approved unto God. That first summer of the war the regiment moved about a good deal and the young chaplain was with his very mobile congregation. While encamped near Winchester he passed his twenty-first birthday July 18th. The following entry is found in his diary which describes his heart felt desires. He wrote on his birthday:
I enter today upon life. I desire to be a man, a true man. I know of no surer way of becoming such than by giving myself away to Jesus. I make no vows, I am so weak; but I humbly trust in and submit myself to God to do with me as He sees fit. I desire to be a blessing to the world, to live for the good of humanity. I may fail, but I think, if I know my heart, my motive is pure. O blessed Jesus, take me and make me ever thine. My plans are these: To go to Greenville Theological Seminary (Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Greenville at the time) next fall (D.V.) and remain there as long as Providence may deem to direct. Then to preach the everlasting gospel in whatsoever place it may be the will of the Lord—Henceforth I am the Lord’s.
Such are the words of the young chaplain who was writing from the heart about his life. He was the Lord’s and was committing his all to the Lord. His prayer was “O blessed Jesus, take me and make me ever thine.” Evidently he had already intended to go to seminary come fall for ministerial training.
Things deteriorated between the officers of the First Tennessee Regiment and their chaplain. What ever happened Chaplain Williams described as being treated in a shameful way. This caused a very committed young chaplain to leave the regiment. Therefore on July 19th he give up the chaplaincy. He stayed with the family near Winchester, the same family that had showed him great hospitality during the summer of 1859 when he was employed by the Potomac Baptist Association. Here he sought solace after being distressed over the situation with the First Tennessee Regiment.
Sticking to his plans for the fall he entered the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary at Greenville, South Carolina. What he began with great enthusiasm was short lived as a result of the raging war. When this session ended the operation of the seminary was suspended. Now in God’s divine providence this part of his training was suspended as was the seminary.
Williams was determined to be useful in the Lord’s work so he picked up where he had left off as a chaplain but now became a hospital chaplain. He returned home to become a chaplain around Richmond with its many camps and he especially concentrated on filling a chaplaincy at Winder Hospital and Camp Winder at Richmond. The scene has been described for us:
The hospital’s boundaries would be the present city streets of Winder, Amelia, Hampton Streets and Allen Avenue. To the north of Winder Hospital was Jackson Hospital with which it shared some of its activities. This was the largest hospital in the Confederacy as it opened with a capacity of more than 3000 and was quickly expanded to 4300. Originally it was divided into five divisions and then a sixth was added plus a tent division for an additional 700 patients. The facility offered a number of natural springs, deep wells, a large library, the central registration of patients, an information center, cook-houses, bakeries, food-processing facilities, employees’ barracks, treatment and surgical buildings and warehouses. There was one hundred twenty-five acres of farmland used for growing supplies, recreational facilities, bathhouses, and other provisions. They sought to provide regular transportation to downtown plus operating their own river and canal boats. The complex had ninety-eight buildings. The hospital was named for General John Henry Winder who was appointed the 21st of June 1861 as Provost Marshal and commander of prisons in Richmond.
Williams had a massive place for ministry. Here he would minister most of his time until war’s end. His home church was the First Baptist Church of Richmond and there he received ordination for the gospel ministry on December 13th, 1863.
After the War
The aftermath of war in Virginia and the South was overwhelming with its destruction of human life and limb as well as unnecessary collateral damage to property that was damaged or destroyed out of pure meanness. What were Southern folks to do? There was nothing left to do but begin to pick up the pieces and attempt to start over. William H. Williams sought to do his part in the rebuilding of the ruined South. Southern people needed the Lord and his guidance more now than ever.
God had called him to the ministry therefore William wanted to be as helpful as possible. His venue for helping the most meant the pastorate. The first church pastorate he held was at Fredericksburg Baptist Church where he was called to be their minister in July of 1865. Fredericksburg had about been destroyed because of the battles in and around of Fredericksburg. The congregation had been scattered and the house for worship had been basically destroyed having been peppered with artillery and used as a Federal hospital. H. W. Willenbucher gave a personal witness as to the damage:
Before the battle the church was intact, but after the battle was over I came back to town. I was out in the country with my family during the battle. I came back the morning after the battle. I saw arms and legs in the rear of the building and there was blood on the floors and mattresses inside and outside of the building. The pews had all been taken out of the building and broken up; there was not a whole bench in the place to be found; they had been used for firewood and there was evidence that they had been removed with axes. And some of the doors in the basement part of the building were gone…. The building was in such condition that it could not be used for church purposes until after it was repaired.
Pastor Williams remained there for fourteen months. While there he succeeded in gathering the scattered flock and reorganizing the church. Also, the place of worship was rebuilt which was a wonder during this era, because most of the South had been reduced to poverty. The extent of the work done during Pastor Williams’ short pastorate was amazing. He resigned this pastorate in September of 1866. The reason for the resignation was to return to seminary and complete his ministerial education that had been curtailed by the war.
Williams was said to be the only man called away by the war who returned to the seminary to complete his education (someone also said there were only two). This time there was no interference with the conclusion of his seminary training at the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. One of his professors Dr. John A. Broadus in a letter of February 4th, 1882 wrote of Williams to Dr. Noah K. Davis that Williams had showed character and persistence in returning to the school after four years at war. In May of 1868 which was after two years William H. Williams had finished and received his diploma.
Williams wrote, “I accepted a call to the pastorate of the First Baptist Church, Charleston, S. C., and took formal charge about the first of the following October.” William became pastor of the historic First Baptist Church of Charleston, South Carolina where he was installed as pastor October 11th, 1868. Dr. E. T. Winkler brought the sermon. Here again he saw the massive footprints of war. Some of the problems he had faced in Fredericksburg before going to seminary now surfaced once more but their solution did not come. This local assembly had fallen on hard times due to war, attrition caused by death and relocation of members. Also, William believed the church could not prosper in its original location. He explained, “The church … was placed at a disadvantage because of its location in the lower part of the city, from which location there was a tendency, on the part of many of the residents to migrate.” Thus he feared for the future of the church. Other Baptist congregations were prospering, even flourishing. There were no hopeful signs of recovery unless the Lord intervened and He did not. Thus in less than a year his pastorate was ended when he resigned the summer of 1869. The Charleston congregation greatly regretted that he was leaving. They had had a warm relationship with their pastor. He described the congregation:
But there was a noble band of godly men and women remaining in the church, and these, with undaunted faith and unflagging zeal, gave themselves to the work of the Lord. Never was a young pastor more warmly received or more fully sustained by any church, large or small…but the hearty sympathy and ready co-operation of my people were to me a source of strength and encouragement.
Their pastor had preached with fervor after having studied faithfully. Williams’ habit was to write his sermon in its fullness. On August 1st, 1869 they adopted a resolution of appreciation and desired the Lord’s blessings upon his future ministry.
Why would the Lord send him to Charleston for such a short pastorate? Although his pastoral stay in Charleston was abbreviated it was while he lived there for eleven months that he married his Mary Matilda Gillard Silcox. When Williams became pastor a deacon was ordained. The deacon’s name was Daniel H. Silcox. Mary was the daughter of this man who became a prominent deacon. One said that he had not preached many sermons before he noticed Mary Matilda in the Silcox family pew. It could not have been long before the courting began and the hand of the deacon’s daughter was asked in marriage. Mary had descended from a prominent family that had been very wealthy before the war. She was described as cultured, queenly and devout. Also, she seemed to predominate in attributes that make for a good pastor’s wife. Years later Dr. W. J. McGlothlin the president of Furman University and son-in-law of Pastor William H. Williams referred to deacon Silcox’s close relation to Williams.
Pastor Williams received a call to the Staunton Baptist Church in Staunton, Virginia and assumed the pastorate in September of 1869. His words of description were: “Following what seemed to be the leading of Providence, I left Charleston in August, 1869, and in September of the same year entered upon my duties as pastor of the Baptist church at Staunton, Virginia.” The church had been founded not many years before the War Between the States and was relatively young and small. The church had a “Diotrephes” who preferred the preeminence (3 John 9). As a result there was discord and Brother Williams had issues with the man as had the former pastor George B. Taylor. Taylor the previous pastor wrote:
Brother William Harrison Williams succeeded to the pastorate of this church. He was a fellow-townsman of mine…. Gifted and trained both as preacher and pastor, he did there, with the aid of his excellent wife, a good work, the Sunday school specially increasing in numbers and efficiency and the gifts of new brethren being brought into exercise. A career of usefulness was before him in this field, where he might have grown, as he did elsewhere, in grace, in power, and in noble service even to the end. But in this almost perfectly pacific church he had trouble, and chiefly through the brother already referred to, who caused it elsewhere, both before and after his relation with this church; nor did a protracted meeting held by the noted evangelist, Mr. Earle, seem to bring peace.
Pastor Williams resigned the Staunton Baptist Church after seventeen months and much of this was due to the disruptive forces of that individual. There appeared to be no way this work could prosper in peace. There had been many evidences that Williams was being used of the Lord. The membership of the assembly of saints had grown substantially and the Sunday school had tripled. On February 8th, 1871 a resolution was passed by the congregation recognizing Pastor Williams’ “ability and fidelity as a preacher and to the untiring zeal with which he has performed his duties as Pastor.”
His last two pastorates had been short. Perhaps Pastor Williams needed to reassess where he was in the ministry so after leaving the Staunton congregation he did not pastor for a year. Instead of pastoring he did supply work. Williams became the supply preacher for Citadel Square Baptist Church in Charleston, South Carolina after which he supplied First Baptist Church of Savannah, Georgia. He had the respect and appreciation of these congregations.
November 21st, 1871, William H. Williams was called to become pastor of the First Baptist Church at Tuscaloosa, Alabama, but he did not accept the call until January of 1872. The church provided his moving expenses and he arrived in Tuscaloosa in time to preach on the second Lord’s Day in January. Dr. J. H. Foster a member of the congregation and professor in the University of Alabama wrote after the conclusion of the Williams pastorate:
His first sermon, preached on the second Sabbath in January, 1872, was received with universal gratification—the first proved a fair sample of those that were to follow—Bro. Williams was already a man of enlarged and liberal culture—he applied himself assiduously, not only to such studies as might directly illumine the themes of his discourses, but also to those that might enlarge and intensify his conceptions of the broad and sure foundations and the symmetrical superstructure of the Christian system. Withal he gave no little attention to current and standard literature. This varied study was all brought to bear upon his chosen work; and he evinced a gradual and steady growth— increasing breadth of thought, and greater fertility and variety of illustration. His public services, therefore, throughout his whole pastorate of nearly six years, grew more and more attractive.
Pastor Williams requested of the congregation that he also be allowed to teach at the Alabama Central Female College. There he taught moral philosophy. The church grew under his ministry but continued to have problems meeting his salary which proved the norm during his ministry there. Williams was active in the denominational functions in Alabama and especially in his local association. He wrote the circular letter for the Tuscaloosa Baptist Association in 1873. The theme of this letter was: “We believe in man’s incapacity, by his own free will and ability, to recover himself from the fallen state in which he is by nature.” Thus he was maintaining the Calvinistic view of soteriological among the Baptists. Though the church was constantly in arrears on their pastor’s salary the assembly grew through the six year ministry of Pastor Williams. The Lord used him as he ministered to churches in surrounding areas where there was at times an outpouring of the Lord’s blessings. On September 2nd, 1877 Williams resigned the pastorate in Tuscaloosa.
After Tuscaloosa Dr. Williams received a call to the Charlottesville Baptist Church and he accepted the call in November of 1877. This was a productive pastorate as well as a joyous pastorate which was not far from Richmond where he was born. Charlottesville was the cultural hub of the state and here Pastor Williams was near a relative, a college classmate with whom he graduated and a dear friend in the person of Augustus Beverly Woodfin who was chaplain of the University of Virginia and who had been a Confederate chaplain of the 61st Georgia. Also William became the pastor of Dr. Noah K. Davis the famous professor and his intimate friend.
During the ministry in Charlottesville the mornings were given to careful preparation of sermons, both of which were usually carefully prepared and written out by Friday morning. With this schedule the afternoons were given to visitation and business. Then his evenings were given to family, social life and reading. His library contained the cream of theology and literature. Pastor Williams was constantly in the process of reading some good book.
The Lord began to honor Pastor William H. Williams’ labors and sent a wonderful awakening among the flock. This revival prospered with souls for the labor and then in accord with Jesus’ words they were taught (Matt. 28:19-20). In 1882 Dr. Noah K. Davis wrote:
It is the earnest and unanimous desire of its members (the Charlottesville Baptist Church) that Mr. Williams should continue in charge of our church indefinitely, for his pastorate has been marked by a steady growth in the number and piety of the membership, and by its increased activity and liberality in all Christian benevolences. It is not, however, merely in Charlottesville and vicinity that his influence is felt and his worth appreciated. Throughout the state he is highly esteemed as one of the ablest and best of the Virginia Baptist ministers.
The hand of the Lord was upon his labors for good. However, God is His providence appeared to be interrupting what hopefully the church was not taking for granted. Pastor Williams began having trouble with his throat until he could no longer preach. His physician told him he would need to stop preaching. Here he had found a home and enjoyed the wholehearted support of the assembly of saints. The entire community held the minister in high regard.
The assembly of believers and the association adopted resolutions expressive of their deepest respect and regard for his labors in the Lord. Was the Lord finished with His servant?
The hand of the Lord in divine providence gave direction to the voiceless preacher. How? Just as events were taking place in Charlottesville even so events were transpiring in St. Louis, Missouri. While pastoring in Tuscaloosa, Alabama and teaching at the Alabama Central Female College, Williams had met Professor J. F. Lanneau. Since Williams’ departure from Alabama Professor Lanneau had become principal of the Baptist Female College in Lexington, Missouri. While events were transpiring in Williams’ life to change his ministry Lanneau wrote to him about coming to become editor of the Central Baptist which was the Baptist voice in print for that area of the South. He became editor on July 10th, 1882. Due to some difficulties and strife Dr. Williams seemed to be the man for aiding in the healing of the division. During his years in Missouri he was able to return to preaching but not regularly as in a pastorate. In 1884 Howard College (now Samford University) in Birmingham, Alabama conferred a Doctor of Divinity degree on him. Dr. W. J. McGlothlin wrote:
He threw himself into the breach to heal, to build and to plant. His whole disposition was pacific, constructive, while progressive and firm for organized work. He held himself aloof from all parties and partisanship and sought only to be just to all, fraternal with all, and to serve the kingdom of God. He declined to serve on boards so as to keep himself free. The paper’s circulation increased fifty per cent and it came to be recognized as one of the strongest and most progressive organs of the denomination. Thus eleven useful and happy years passed. Thousands had seen his face, heard his voice, experienced his kindness, been made stronger and better by his paper. During the later years Mrs. Williams had contributed materially to the value of the paper as a visitor to the home and family by conducting the departments of “the Silent Hour” and “Family Page.”
On his final day of service, Dr. Williams had preached and completed some correspondence. The Lord removed his servant very decidedly from all his labors at about 10:15 on the night of Thursday, August 24th, 1893. A very busy season among his brethren was upon him and while visiting various Baptist associations William began to speak of an unusual weariness of body and tightness of the chest. The good soldier of Jesus Christ did not slacken his pace. Having just attended the Wyaconda Association at Kahoka, Missouri he was headed to meet his family for they were spending the summer at LaGrange. Reaching Alexandria he and his traveling companions had to lay over and wait for the train. While they were waiting someone in the group suggested that they spend their time singing some hymns. After one of the hymns Dr. Williams began to relate an account of a baptism he had performed many years ago. The hymn they sang revived his memory and reminded him of the event. Ice had to be broken he related in order to perform the baptism. As he was describing the scene suddenly the voice was silent and the speaker’s head was resting upon his breast. His companions thought he had fallen asleep so they began to support him but soon they discovered he had fallen asleep in Jesus. Without a sound or struggle his soul had taken flight to the realms of glory.
Dr. McGlothlin, his son-in-law, gave a summation of Dr. William Harrison Williams’ ministry:
As a preacher he was characterized by careful preparation, most of his sermons being written out in full. He gave his hearers the marrow and fatness of the gospel, was apt in illustration and forceful and direct in application. As a pastor he was faithful in labor, tender, tireless and wise. He was especially successful in dealing with the Sunday school and the young of his church. His business sagacity and sound judgment made him a safe leader in all the business affairs of the church. Few pastors have enjoyed the confidence and esteem of their people to a greater extent than he.
The quality of his editorial work placed him among the ablest editors of the country. Expressions of high appreciation of his work appeared in the papers of all denominations at his death. He was an active member of the Missouri Press Association and the numerous sympathetic notices of his death not only in the press of St. Louis, but in the county papers throughout the state bear testimony of the high regard in which he was held by the secular press.
Dr. Williams was fifty-three when passed away leaving behind his wife and six children. Some say he was in the prime of life, but in reality he was ripe for heaven. As the Preacher wrote, “To every thing there is a season, and a time to every purpose under the heaven; A time to be born, and a time to die” (Eccl. 3:1-2). God’s time is never off by a second! Are you ready?
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Porch, Luther Quentin. History of the First Baptist Church Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Tuscaloosa: Drake Printers, 1968.
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